01 mai 2007

PRATIQUE : check-list avant départ

Dans la perspective d'un voyage aérien, d'une navigation d'entraînement, d'une promenade... le pilote commandant de bord d'un aéronef doit achever la préparation de son vol au moment du départ en fonction des données du jour.

N'oublions pas qu'à l'issue de cette préparation (avant vol), le pilote doit pouvoir répondre aux 3 questions suivantes :

1- Le vol est-il réalisable ?

2 - Dans quelles conditions ?

3 - Quelles sont les contraintes ?



La check-list avant départ permet en quelques clics - grâce à des liens vers des sites aéronautiques - d'effectuer une recherche chronologique de dernière minute de toutes les informations INDISPENSABLES à la préparation finale du vol :

ETAPE 1 - Accessible à tous par code d'accès gratuit ( numéro de licence FFA pour les pilotes ), le site Internet aviation de METEO FRANCE fournit des :

- dossiers de vol -pré-établis ou personnalisés
Note : rappelons que pour les vols hors des abords d'un aérodrome, l'action préliminaire au vol comprend : 1 - l'étude attentive des bulletins et prévisions météorologiques disponibles les plus récents ; 2 - la prise en compte des besoins en carburant ; 3 - la vérification de la proximité d'un aérodrome de dégagement au cas où le vol ne pourrait pas se dérouler comme prévu ( arrêté du 3 mars 2006 relatif aux règles de l'air ).
-

ETAPE 2 - recherche et recueil de L'INFORMATION AERONAUTIQUE TEMPORAIRE
Disponible sur le site Internet du SIA, l'information aéronautique temporaire est publiée sous forme de :
- suppléments aux AIP ( SUP AIP )
Note : la consultation de ces informations est une étape primordiale de la préparation du vol et constitue un acte de sécurité, au même titre que la consultation de la météo.


ETAPE 3 - mise à jour de la FEUILLE DE NAVIGATION
Accessible à tous, le site Internet JpRAéroWeb fournit une feuille de navigation qui permet au pilote d'intégrer les effets du vent en fonction des données météo les plus récentes et de précalculer la DERIVE et les TEMPS CORRIGES :
Note : dans la pratique, une réestimation des paramètres de navigation s'avère souvent nécessaire en cours de vol.
-

ETAPE 4 - calcul de la PREVISION CARBURANT

Avant tout vol, le pilote doit s'assurer de l'autonomie de son avion ainsi que de la présence à bord des réserves réglementaires. Le délestage est calculé en tenant compte de la route standard ( aérodromes et points de reports ) et des divers éléments météorologiques disponibles ( vent en particulier ).
Publiées sur le site de l'aéro-club HISPANO-SUIZA (ACHS), les caractéristiques techniques des 32 avions du club permettent aux pilotes membres de connaître l'autonomie en carburant de chaque aéronef utilisé :
La feuille de navigation de JpRNavMaster permet également d'intègrer dans ses calculs la prévision carburant :
Note : en VFR, la réserve minimale ( de jour ) est de 20 minutes de vol.


ETAPE 5 - calcul de la MASSE et du CENTRAGE
Avant tout vol, le pilote doit obligatoirement vérifier les limites de masse et de centrage de son avion. En fonction de la masse à vide ( qui figure sur la fiche de pesée propre à chaque avion ) et du chargement, le pilote va pouvoir embarquer plus ou moins de carburant.
La feuille de calcul disponible sur le site JpRAeroWeb permet d'effectuer le calcul de la masse maximum et de visualiser le domaine de centrage :
Note : la fiche de pesée est un document dont la présence à bord de l'avion est rendue obligatoire par arrêté. Les fiches de pesée des avions de l'aéro-club HISPANO-SUIZA sont accessibles sur le site du club.


ETAPE 6 - dépôt du PLAN DE VOL
Lorsque le dépôt d'un plan de vol est obligatoire, le pilote doit fournir un ensemble de renseignements aux organismes de la circulation aérienne sur le vol projeté, le type d'aéronef utilisé et son équipement, ainsi que le nombre de passagers se trouvant à bord. En contrepartie, ces organismes fournissent les services prévus ( information, contrôle et s'il y a lieu le service d'alerte ).
L'accès par Internet au système OLIVIA permet au pilote de transmettre son plan de vol par voie télématique :
Note : En dehors du cadre obligatoire,, le pilote peut déposer un plan de vol dès qu'il envisage un vol pour lequel il juge nécessaire de bénéficier du service d'alerte ( long trajet, mauvaise météorologie, etc...).




Libellés :

41 Comments:

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Très bon article, à afficher dans tous les aéroclubs. Bravo et merci à JpR également pour son excellente application, qui permet d'utiliser un mac dans la conception des log de nav !

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